New RNA associated with Alzheimer's disease
In a recent study published in Nature Communications, a group of researchers explored how Death Induced by Survival gene Elimination (DISE) through the analysis of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-induced silencing complex (RISC)-bound short RNAs (R-sRNAs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, influences neuronal survival and correlates with neurotoxicity in AD.
The study presents a novel perspective on AD, suggesting that the balance of R-sRNAs, specifically the ratio of toxic to nontoxic miRNAs, plays a crucial role in neuronal survival and neurodegeneration. It concluded that with aging and AD, there is a shift towards more toxic sRNAs in the RISC, leading to increased neuronal susceptibility to DISE and DNA damage. This shift could be due to aging-related decreases in key miRNA processing enzymes like Dicer and Drosha.
The study also indicates that DISE, involving various cell death pathways, may contribute significantly to AD pathology, including synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration.
The findings challenge the conventional focus on amyloid and tau in AD treatment, proposing instead that enhancing nontoxic miRNA levels could be a more effective therapeutic strategy