Mediterranean Diet and Alzheimer Disease

To determine whether following a Mediterranean-like diet (MeDi) relates to cognitive functions and in vivo biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD), a new study analyzed cross-sectional data from the German DZNE-Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Study.
Higher MeDi adherence related to larger mediotemporal gray matter volume (p < 0.05 family-wise error corrected), better memory (β ± SE = 0.03 ± 0.02; p = 0.038), and less amyloid (Aβ42/40 ratio, β ± SE = 0.003 ± 0.001; p = 0.008) and pTau181 (β ± SE = −1.96 ± 0.68; p = 0.004) pathology.

Mediotemporal volume mediated the association between MeDi and memory (40% indirect mediation). 

Finally, MeDi favorably moderated the associations among Aβ42/40 ratio, pTau181, and mediotemporal atrophy. Results were consistent correcting for APOE-ε4 status.

These findings corroborate the view of MeDi as a protective factor against memory decline and mediotemporal atrophy. 

They suggest that these associations might be explained by a decrease of amyloidosis and tau pathology. 

Longitudinal and dietary intervention studies should further examine this conjecture and its treatment implications