Inverse association between Mediterranean diet and risk of multiple sclerosis


In this new study (Mult Scler. 2023 Jun 27:13524585231181841) the investigators aimed to study the influence of dietary habits on the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS).

They used a population-based case-control study recruiting incident cases of MS (1953 cases, 3557 controls).

Subjects with different dietary habits 5 years prior to MS diagnosis were compared regarding MS risk by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models.

Adjustment was made for a large number of environmental and lifestyle habits, including ancestry, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, and sun exposure habits.

Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of developing MS (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34-0.86, p = 0.009), compared with Western-style diet. There was no significant association between vegetarian/vegan diet and MS risk (adjusted OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.75-1.24, p = 0.976), nor between diet with low glycemic index and MS risk (adjusted OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.60-1.42, p = 0.518).

They concluded that Mediterranean diet may exert a protective influence regarding the risk of subsequently developing MS compared with Western-style diet.